Education and Social Change in Liberia: New Perspectives for the 21st Century


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AmazonGlobal Ship Orders Internationally. The subsequent elections were internationally regarded as the most free and fair in Liberian history. In , the government established a Truth and Reconciliation Commission to address the causes and crimes of the civil war. The landscape is characterized by mostly flat to rolling coastal plains that contain mangroves and swamps , which rise to a rolling plateau and low mountains in the northeast. Tropical rainforests cover the hills, while elephant grass and semi-deciduous forests make up the dominant vegetation in the northern sections.

Cape Mount near the border with Sierra Leone receives the most precipitation in the nation.

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Liberia's main northwestern boundary is traversed by the Mano River while its southeast limits are bounded by the Cavalla River. Paul exiting near Monrovia , the river St. John at Buchanan and the Cestos River , all of which flow into the Atlantic. Forests on the coastline are composed mostly of salt-tolerant mangrove trees, while the more sparsely populated inland has forests opening onto a plateau of drier grasslands.

The climate is equatorial , with significant rainfall during the May—October rainy season and harsh harmattan winds the remainder of the year. Liberia possesses about forty percent of the remaining Upper Guinean rainforest. It was an important producer of rubber in the early 20th century.

Liberia is divided into fifteen counties , which, in turn, are subdivided into a total of 90 districts and further subdivided into clans.

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The oldest counties are Grand Bassa and Montserrado, both founded in prior to Liberian independence. Gbarpolu is the newest county, created in The fifteen counties are administered by superintendents appointed by the president. The Constitution calls for the election of various chiefs at the county and local level, but these elections have not taken place since due to war and financial constraints. Parallel to the administrative divisions of the country are the local and municipal divisions. Liberia currently does not have any constitutional framework or uniform statutes which deal with the creation or revocation of local governments.

Endangered species are hunted for human consumption as bushmeat in Liberia. Bushmeat is widely eaten in Liberia, and is considered a delicacy. Liberia is a global biodiversity hotspot — a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans. Slash-and-burn agriculture is one of the human activities eroding Liberia's natural forests.

Illegal logging has increased in Liberia since the end of the Second Civil War in Pollution is a significant issue in Liberia's capital city Monrovia.

Education and Social Change in Liberia

The government of Liberia, modeled on the government of the United States , is a unitary constitutional republic and representative democracy as established by the Constitution. The government has three co-equal branches of government: The president serves as head of government , head of state and the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of Liberia.

Together with the vice president , the president is elected to a six-year term by majority vote in a two-round system and can serve up to two terms in office. The Legislature is composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The House, led by a speaker , has 73 members apportioned among the 15 counties on the basis of the national census , with each county receiving a minimum of two members. The Senate is made up of two senators from each county for a total of 30 senators.

Liberia's highest judicial authority is the Supreme Court, made up of five members and headed by the Chief Justice of Liberia. Members are nominated to the court by the president and are confirmed by the Senate, serving until the age of The judiciary is further divided into circuit and speciality courts , magistrate courts and justices of the peace. Between and , the government was dominated by the True Whig Party. Corruption is endemic at every level of the Liberian government.

Liberia scored a 3. This gave it a ranking 87th of countries worldwide and 11th of 47 in Sub-Saharan Africa. Founded as the Liberian Frontier Force in , the military was retitled in For virtually all of its history, the AFL has received considerable material and training assistance from the United States. For most of the —89 period, training was largely provided by U. After the turmoil following the First and Second Liberian Civil Wars , Liberia's internal stabilization in the 21st century brought a return to cordial relations with neighboring countries and much of the Western world.

As in other African countries, China is an important part of the post-conflict reconstruction. In the past, both of Liberia's neighbors, Guinea and Sierra Leone , have accused Liberia of backing rebels inside their countries. The Liberian National Police are the national police force of the country.

It has officers in 33 stations in Montserrado County , which contains the capital Monrovia , as of October The internal security is characterized by a general lawlessness coupled with the danger that former combatants in the late civil war might reestablish militias to challenge the civil authorities. The Central Bank of Liberia is responsible for printing and maintaining the Liberian dollar , which is the primary form of currency in Liberia.

Following a peak in growth in , the Liberian economy began a steady decline due to economic mismanagement following the coup. Current impediments to growth include a small domestic market , lack of adequate infrastructure, high transportation costs, poor trade links with neighboring countries and the high dollarization of the economy. Following a decrease in inflation beginning in , inflation spiked in as a result of worldwide food and energy crises , [84] reaching While official commodity exports declined during the s as many investors fled the civil war, Liberia's wartime economy featured the exploitation of the region's diamond wealth.

Due to its status as a flag of convenience , Liberia has the second-largest maritime registry in the world behind Panama. Much of Liberia's communications infrastructure was destroyed or plundered during the two civil wars — and — Liberia's economic main links to the outside world come through Monrovia, via the port and airport in the capital.

Formal electricity services are provided solely by the state-owned Liberia Electricity Corporation, which operates a small grid almost exclusively in the Greater Monrovia District.

Total installed capacity in was 20 MW, a sharp decline from a peak of MW in before the wars. Completion of the repair and expansion of the Mount Coffee Hydropower Plant , with a maximum capacity of 80 MW, is scheduled to be completed by Liberia has begun exploration for offshore oil; unproven oil reserves may be in excess of one billion barrels. As of the national census, Liberia was home to 4,, people. The Greater Monrovia District has , residents.


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Prior to the census, the last census had been held in and listed the country's population as 2,, The population includes 16 indigenous ethnic groups and various foreign minorities. Indigenous peoples comprise about 95 percent of the population. Congo people, descendants of repatriated Congo and Afro-Caribbean slaves who arrived in , make up an estimated 2.

Numerous immigrants have come as merchants and become a major part of the business community, including Lebanese , Indians , and other West African nationals. There is a high percentage of interracial marriage between ethnic Liberians and the Lebanese, resulting in a significant mixed-race population especially in and around Monrovia. A small minority of Liberians who are White Africans of European descent reside in the country. English is the official language and serves as the lingua franca of Liberia.

According to the National Census, Most of these Christian denominations were brought by African American settlers moving from the United States into Liberia via the American Colonization Society , while some are indigenous—especially Pentecostal and evangelical Protestant ones. Protestantism was originally associated with Black American settlers and their Americo-Liberian descendants, while native peoples held to their own animist forms of African traditional religion.

Indigenous people were subject to Christian missionary , as well as Americo-Liberian efforts to close the cultural gap by means of education. This proved successful, leaving Christians a majority in the country. Traditional indigenous religions are practiced by 0. While Christian, many Liberians also participate in traditional, gender-based indigenous religious secret societies , such as Poro for men and Sande for women. The all-female Sande society practices female circumcision.

The Constitution provides for freedom of religion , and the government generally respects this right. Commerce is prohibited by law on Sundays and major Christian holidays. The government does not require businesses or schools to excuse Muslims for Friday prayers. In , the literacy rate of Liberia was estimated at On average, children attain 10 years of education 11 for boys and 8 for girls.

Higher education is provided by a number of public and private universities. The University of Liberia is the country's largest and oldest university. Located in Monrovia, the university opened in Today it has six colleges, including a medical school and the nation's only law school, Louis Arthur Grimes School of Law.


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  7. Cuttington University was established by the Episcopal Church of the USA in in Suakoko, Bong County , as part of its missionary education work among indigenous peoples. It is the nation's oldest private university. Hospitals in Liberia include the John F. Kennedy Medical Center in Monrovia and several others. Life expectancy in Liberia is estimated to be In , an outbreak of Ebola virus in Guinea spread to Liberia.

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    On May 9, , Liberia was declared Ebola free after six weeks with no new cases. According to an Overseas Development Institute report, private health expenditure accounts for Rape and sexual assault are frequent in the post-conflict era in Liberia. The country has one of the highest incidences of sexual violence against women in the world. Rape is the most frequently reported crime, accounting for more than one-third of sexual violence cases. Both male and female homosexuality is illegal in Liberia. The religious practices, social customs and cultural standards of the Americo-Liberians had their roots in the antebellum American South.

    The settlers wore top hat and tails and modeled their homes on those of Southern slaveowners. Liberia has a rich history in textile arts and quilting, as the settlers brought with them their sewing and quilting skills. Liberia hosted National Fairs in and in which prizes were awarded for various needle arts. One of the most well-known Liberian quilters was Martha Ann Ricks, [] who presented a quilt featuring the famed Liberian coffee tree to Queen Victoria in When President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf moved into the Executive Mansion, she reportedly had a Liberian-made quilt installed in her presidential office.

    A rich literary tradition has existed in Liberia for over a century. Edward Wilmot Blyden , Bai T. Moore , Roland T.

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    Dempster and Wilton G. Sankawulo are among Liberia's more prominent authors. One-third of married Liberian women between the ages of 15—49 are in polygamous marriages. Liberian cuisine heavily incorporates rice , the country's staple food. Other ingredients include cassava , fish , bananas , citrus fruit , plantains , coconut , okra and sweet potatoes. The second most popular sport in Liberia is basketball. The Liberian national basketball team has reached the AfroBasket twice, in and Liberia is one of only three countries that have not officially adopted the International System of Units short SI, also called the metric system , the others being the United States and Myanmar.

    The Liberian government has begun transitioning away from use of United States Customary Units to the metric system. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country in Africa. Make sure to buy your groceries and daily needs Buy Now. Let us wish you a happy birthday! Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Year Please fill in a complete birthday Enter a valid birthday.

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    Education and Social Change in Liberia: New Perspectives for the 21st Century Education and Social Change in Liberia: New Perspectives for the 21st Century
    Education and Social Change in Liberia: New Perspectives for the 21st Century Education and Social Change in Liberia: New Perspectives for the 21st Century
    Education and Social Change in Liberia: New Perspectives for the 21st Century Education and Social Change in Liberia: New Perspectives for the 21st Century
    Education and Social Change in Liberia: New Perspectives for the 21st Century Education and Social Change in Liberia: New Perspectives for the 21st Century
    Education and Social Change in Liberia: New Perspectives for the 21st Century Education and Social Change in Liberia: New Perspectives for the 21st Century
    Education and Social Change in Liberia: New Perspectives for the 21st Century Education and Social Change in Liberia: New Perspectives for the 21st Century
    Education and Social Change in Liberia: New Perspectives for the 21st Century Education and Social Change in Liberia: New Perspectives for the 21st Century
    Education and Social Change in Liberia: New Perspectives for the 21st Century Education and Social Change in Liberia: New Perspectives for the 21st Century
    Education and Social Change in Liberia: New Perspectives for the 21st Century Education and Social Change in Liberia: New Perspectives for the 21st Century

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