Viking Age Iceland - Part 2 of 3.
Kathleen Kirkwood Collection #2: The HEART Trilogy - Kathleen Kirkwood - Google Книги
From its founding, Iceland was a self-governing society of free landholders. They recognized no sovereign or overlord, established no central authority, and maintained no army. Instead, a complex system of ancient Germanic law codes bound them together — the law plus personal honor.
By upward to 30, people had flowed into the country and all available land had been claimed. A more organized system of governance was needed. This event is considered the founding of the republic Free State and Icelandic democracy. The national assembly lasted essentially in its original form from until when Iceland came under the rule of the Norwegian crown. Wikipedia Commons, Public Domain.
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The proceedings lasted for two weeks in the open air and all could attend. As Law-speaker, he presided over all aspects of the Althing from beginning to end. The Law Rock was the central focus of the proceedings of the Althing. This enhanced the acoustics, projecting voices off it.
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Anyone attending had the right to stand upon the Law Rock and present their own case. Most were interconnected by ties of blood and marriage.
Nonetheless, power struggles arose among them and hostilities broke out. In order to avert countrywide bloodshed, the Althing was reformed and peace restored. The reforms of divided Iceland into quarters: Thus, they shared power equally. The Althing had judicial functions as well. With the reforms, each quarter of the country had its own court. An additional court was created at the national level as a highest court of appeal.
Germanic customary law was based on a system of compensation to satisfy grievances and limit bloodshed. Settlements typically exacted a fine wergild determined according to the offence and the status and gender of the aggrieved.
In severe cases, the guilty party was outlawed and expelled from the land. Somewhat surprisingly, the things and Althing had no real power to impose these decisions. Enforcement resided in the hands of the people. In time, this feature proved detrimental to the stability of the country. End of the old Icelandic Free State. When they began warring against each other in an attempt to control the church and the Althing, the populace had had enough. In , after a succession of meetings in the quarter things, lasting over a two-year period, the people agreed to submit to the King of Norway as their overlord and allowed him to take over.
Officials were sent to implement the transition and oversee the peace. Life proceeded fairly well, but the Free State had come to an end. Viking Age Iceland - Part 3 of 3. How impoverished our knowledge of the Viking world would be today if it were not for the great literary treasures of Iceland. By contrast, little survives from other countries of that time period. Almost all of what we know of Norse mythology, Viking navigation, law codes, everyday life, etc.
It may seem strange that a remote island, just south of the Arctic Circle, should be the repository of such literary riches. Being far from their native soils, Icelanders were keenly interested in their past, traditions, and in their rugged forbearers who first colonized the land. For nearly six months of the year, icebergs prevented anyone from leaving the island. Winter brought deep snows and near constant darkness. Theirs was an oral tradition. The old tales and legends were recited in skaldic verse which utilized formal meters and highly-wrought, complex language.
In the 9 th and 10 th century, the skalds of Iceland achieved wide renown and were sought for the royal courts, particularly those of Norway and Denmark. In the year the Althing voted to adopt Christianity as the state religion. King Olaf of Norway, who had, himself, embraced Christianity, threatened to cut off trade with Iceland if it did not likewise adopt the religion. After deep consideration, the Law-speaker decided that Iceland would adopt Christianity publicly, but in their homes, people could worship as they wished. Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read.
Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Kathleen Kirkwood Collection 2: The Valiant Heart A beautiful heiress and pawn of the king. Dispossessed of her lands by the marauding Norsemen, Brienne Beaumanior is brought from cloister by royal decree and offered as a bride to her enemy.
A golden warrior of the North. Love unexpected, bringing peril to all. Tormented by their desires, Rurik and Brienne resist giving in to their yearnings and endangering their people. But destiny will not be denied. Their love will burn brightly through all the ages to come as Norse and Frank meld into a new people — the Normans. The Defiant Heart A maiden of Ireland enslaved.
Seized during a brutal attack on her homeland, Ailinn vows to remain forever defiant against her Norse captors, no matter the future that awaits her — or the handsome Dane with snow-bright hair who suddenly appears in her life. A shining warrior of the North. When Lyting Atlison encounters the autumn-fire beauty in shackles, he vows to free her.
Discovering the fate his kinsmen intend for the maid, he undertakes a private mission in order to join the fleet that will bear her to distant lands. Now as the Norse host sets sail for the lands of the Rus and the glittering courts of Byzantium, untold perils await. The Captive Heart A maiden of Normandy, mistakenly abducted. As the ruffians smuggle her aboard ship, bound and gagged, and set forth for Ireland, she is desperate to escape. A Saxon lord on a secret mission for his king.
No sooner does Garreth of Tamworth arrive in Normandy than he encounters the entrancing scarlet-haired maiden who literally knocks him off his feet. But their stolen moments and budding passions end abruptly when his audience with the Duke concludes badly. Now only he can save her from family enemies returned from long past, seeking revenge. Yet amid the darkest danger, their all-consuming love is forged.
Kindle Edition , pages. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Kathleen Kirkwood Collection 2 , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about Kathleen Kirkwood Collection 2. Lists with This Book. Jan 17, Regan Walker rated it really liked it Shelves: Book 1 in the Heart trilogy is a great Viking romance. It seems King Charles desires to cement his relationship with the Northmen and Brienne has been biding her time in a convent. But just after the wedding, Atli suffers a heart attack and dies. Even before her new husband dies, Brienne fell in love with his oldest son, Rurik.
The story has an intriguing beginning as Rurik sends his brother, Lyting, disguised as a monk to the abbey at Levroux where Brienne is in training to be a healer. Great writing and a story that will draw you in make this a wonderful Viking romance. This second story is set in AD and begins as a fleet of Danish drakken dragon ships attacks Eire Ireland to rape and pillage.
Lyting, born a Dane, lives in Francia where his uncle is Duke Rollo.
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Apparently possibly in book 1 Lyting was spared some fate that caused him to want to become a monk, but his brother, Rurik, thinks Lyting should take a wife and settle down. Lyting first tries to buy Ailinn, not to have her but to spare her a horrible fate. When he discovers she is destined for a harem in Byzantium, he joins the fleet that will carry her there. And then the adventure begins, and oh, is it ever an adventure: The author clearly made an effort to make this an authentic Viking tale set in the history of the time, hence women taken as slaves were mistreated and raped.
Gordon does it tastefully. The author also made an effort to date the speech to the period, which I appreciated. There were a lot of characters to keep track of but the author did a good job of providing descriptions. And there were many place names mentioned a map would have been nice. All the same, the story drew me and kept me reading. Trust me, some of the scenes will have you on the edge of your seat! Brienne and Rurik, hero and heroine in book 1, are characters in this story and there are lots of references to their story and the characters from that story.
It helps to begin at the beginning. So, read them in order. I recommend this story and will definitely read more of the trilogy, perhaps beginning with book 1. Book 3 begins in Ireland in A. Rhiannon means to capture Ailinn and bring her to Ireland. But Rhiannon makes a mistake and captures the wrong woman. In Normandy, Aileanor, daughter of Ailinn, and her siblings are playing in a pear orchard when Garreth of Tamworth, an agent for Athelstan, King of England, passes through and saves Aileanor from having to climb down a tree without a ladder.
After that, he is enamored of the young woman and means to make her his. How fortuitous it is that Garreth took the same ship! Garreth is plans to marry Aileanor.
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