Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective (Understanding Public Health)

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It is possible for example, that low income individuals lack the resources for appropriate health services and the knowledge to know what is appropriate for maintaining reproductive health. According to the United Nations Population Fund UNFPA , unmet needs for sexual and reproductive health deprive women of the right to make "crucial choices about their own bodies and futures", affecting family welfare.

Women bear and usually nurture children, so their reproductive health is inseparable from gender equality. Denial of such rights also worsens poverty. Adolescent health creates a major global burden and has a great deal of additional and diverse complications compared to adult reproductive health such as early pregnancy and parenting issues, difficulties accessing contraception and safe abortions, lack of healthcare access, and high rates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections, and mental health issues.

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Each of those can be affected by outside political, economic and socio-cultural influences. These complications range from anemia, malaria, HIV and other STI's, postpartum bleeding and other postpartum complications, mental health disorders such as depression and suicidal thoughts or attempts. The top three leading causes of death in females between the ages of are maternal conditions The causes for teenage pregnancy are vast and diverse. In developing countries, young women are pressured to marry for different reasons.

One reason is to bear children to help with work, another on a dowry system to increase the families income, another is due to prearranged marriages. These reasons tie back to financial needs of girls' family, cultural norms, religious beliefs and external conflicts. Adolescent pregnancy, especially in developing countries, carries increased health risks, and contributes to maintaining the cycle of poverty.

Women in developing countries have little access to family planning services, different cultural practices, have lack of information, birthing attendants, prenatal care, birth control, postnatal care, lack of access to health care and are typically in poverty. One of the international Sustainable Development Goals developed by United Nations is to improve maternal health by a targeted 70 deaths per , live births by All care after childbirth recovery is typically excluded, which includes pre-menopause and aging into old age.

Other reasons can be regional such as complications related to diseases such as malaria and AIDS during pregnancy. The younger the women is when she gives birth, the more at risk her and her baby is for complications and possibly mortality. There is a significant relationship between the quality of maternal services made available and the greater financial standings of a country [16].

Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia exemplify this as these regions are significantly deprived of medical staff and affordable health opportunities [17]. Most countries provide for their health services through a combination of funding from government tax revenue and local households [18]. Poorer nations or regions with extremely concentrated wealth can leave citizens on the margins uncared for or overlooked.

In addition, poorer nations funding their medical services through taxes places a greater financial burden on the public and effectively the mothers themselves [20].

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Responsibility and accountability on the part of mental health sectors are strongly emphasized as to what will remedy the poor quality of maternal health globally [21]. The impact of different maternal health interventions across the globe stagger variously and are vastly uneven [22]. This is the result of a lack of political and financial commitment to the issue as most safe motherhood programs internationally have to compete for significant funding [23]. Some resolve that if global survival initiatives were promoted and properly funded it would prove to be mutually beneficial for the international community.

Investing in maternal health would ultimately advance several issues such as: As it currently stands, pregnant women are subjugated to high financial costs throughout the duration of their term internationally that are highly taxing and strenuous. Access to reproductive health services is very poor in many countries. Women are often unable to access maternal health services due to lack of knowledge about the existence of such services or lack of freedom of movement. Some women are subjected to forced pregnancy and banned from leaving the home.

In many countries, women are not allowed to leave home without a male relative or husband, and therefore their ability to access medical services is limited. Therefore, increasing women's autonomy is needed in order to improve reproductive health, however doing may require a cultural shift. According to the WHO, "All women need access to antenatal care in pregnancy, skilled care during childbirth, and care and support in the weeks after childbirth".

The fact that the law allows certain reproductive health services, it does not necessary ensure that such services are de facto available to people. The availability of contraception, sterilization and abortion is dependent on laws, as well as social, cultural and religious norms. Some countries have liberal laws regarding these issues, but in practice it is very difficult to access such services due to doctors, pharmacists and other social and medical workers being conscientious objectors.

In developing regions of the world, there are about million women who want to avoid pregnancy but are unable to use safe and effective family planning methods. However, it does not protect from sexually transmitted infections STIs. Some methods, such as using condoms , achieve both protection from STIs and unwanted pregnancies. There are also natural family planning methods, which may be preferred by religious people, but some very conservative religious groups, such as the Quiverfull movement, oppose these methods too, because they advocate the maximization of procreation.

There are many types of contraceptives. One type of contraceptive includes barrier methods. There are many objections to the use of birth control, both historically and in the present day. One argument against birth control usage states that there is no need for birth control to begin with.

Such policies consider that coercion is an acceptable means of reaching demographic targets. Religious objections are based on the view that premarital sex should not happen, while married couples should have as many children as possible.

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As such, the Catholic Church encourages premarital abstinence from sex. Support for contraception is based on views such as reproductive rights , women's rights , and the necessity to prevent child abandonment and child poverty. A Sexually transmitted infection STI --previously known as a sexually transmitted disease STD or venereal disease VD -- is an infection that has a significant likelihood of transmission between humans by means of sexual activity.

There are more than million cases of STI's worldwide and more than 20 million new cases within the United States. However, the study concluded that the United States has led to an excess in infections, treatment costs, and deaths, even when interventions do not improve over all survival rates. There is a profound reduction on STI rates once those who are sexually active are educated about transmissions, condom promotion, interventions targeted at key and vulnerable populations through a comprehensive Sex education courses or programs.

The policy also promotes screening activities related to sexual health such as HIV counseling and testing as well as testing for other STIs, tuberculosis, cervical cancer, and breast cancer. Globally, an estimated 25 million unsafe abortions occur each year. The abortion debate is the ongoing controversy surrounding the moral, legal, and religious status of induced abortion. Articles from the World Health Organization call legal abortion a fundamental right of women regardless of where they live, and argue that unsafe abortion is a silent pandemic.

In , it was estimated that million abortions had complications, some complications are permanent, while another estimated 68, women died from unsafe abortions. It is hard to get an abortion due to legal and policy barriers, social and cultural barriers gender discrimination, poverty, religious restrictions, lack of support etc. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to: The General comment No. Thus, restrictions on the ability of women or girls to seek abortion must not, inter alia, jeopardize their lives, subject them to physical or mental pain or suffering which violates article 7, discriminate against them or arbitrarily interfere with their privacy.

Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. A Public Health Perspective. Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Preview — Sexual Health by Kaye Wellings. Lectures, discussion and assignments will emphasize impact evaluation strategies for health promotion and disease prevention in international settings.

The course provides an overview of the major health problems facing resource-poor or "developing" societies; the divergent historical patterns of public health in rich versus poor societies; the links among public health, development, and culture; and strategies for improving public health in poor societies.

There is no prerequisite for the course. It addresses the control of malnutrition general and micronutrient through general ration distribution and selective feeding programs, emergency public health measures, and key policy issues. Outside speakers with recent experience in this field contribute to specific topics and with illustrative case studies.

Students will learn to develop a conceptual framework, write goals and measurable objectives, develop appropriate indicators of input, process, output, and outcome. Students will gain practical experience in translating concepts into applications for actual programs. The goal of this course is to provide students with a foundational understanding of sexual health from a public health perspective. Specific emphasis is given to the idiosyncrasies of developing proposals for federal funding agencies and foundations. By the end of the course students will know how to identify prospective funders, conduct proposal research, and develop and write a full proposal, evaluations, devising budgets, and providing supplementary material.

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Population based approaches to elimination of disparities in the maintenance of health and access to primary and secondary care of children will be presented with a focus on children with special health care needs, children within immigrant families, children with developmental and psycho-social challenges, and other groups of children who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. Adolescent development and culture are considered as they relate to the specific health issues causing morbidity and mortality in adolescence.

The course emphasizes critical-thinking skills and is oriented toward those interested in considering service delivery in adolescence. We will look at the epidemiology of violence scope, causes, risk factors, and consequences along with public health approaches to the problem. The course aims to balance a review of the problem with ideas and evidence for solutions. Local academics in other relevant disciplines, including social work, psychology, law, and pediatric psychiatry, and community leaders working in the field of violence prevention will lend their expertise to help students understand and address violence as a public health problem.

The course offers an introduction to MCH-related issues primarily in the United States from a multidisciplinary perspective. The purpose of the course is to provide students with an overview of the health, social, economic, and environmental issues currently affecting women of reproductive age, infants, and children. This course is unique in that it relies on the expertise of guest lecturers whose work is germane to the field of maternal and child health. Discussion and debate with fellow students, the professor, and the guest lecturers is integral to the class. Critical thinking and writing across scientific, clinical, social and political aspects of each issue is essential.

Nutritional problems in communities range from obesity to food insecurity in units from families to governments. The causes of poor nutrition are multiple and complex, involving biological, economic, social, cultural, and policy issues. This course explores various communities and the influences on their eating habits and nutritional status, as well as programs and policies designed to address nutritional problems in certain communities.

It is recommended for graduate students who have not had a prior course in nutritional science. Subjects include basic nutrients with emphasis on their sources, function, and metabolism in the human body. Other topics include food selection for optimal health, energy balance and weight control, and lifecycle nutrition. An emphasis will be placed on the major nutrition-related problems in the world today and strategies to address them.

Training in design-thinking for social impact is offered via hands-on workshops, complemented by a theoretical framing and examples from public health.

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Students learn to map complex systems, identify entry-points, and reframe problems to work more creatively with community stakeholders. Students are required to join the Fast 48 weekend: Spring, every other year. Topics include anthropometric, biochemical, and socioeconomic indicators of nutritional status; methods for the collection, analysis, and interpretation of dietary data; measurement of household food security; and the use of data from nutrition monitoring and surveillance sources.

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This means learning about experiences in specific countries, and generalizations from these, in recent successful efforts to reduce malnutrition and improve health. Students will also learn how public health and nutrition programs are set up to address key child health issues in resource poor areas through both preventive services and disease management programs. Students will learn the various definitions of the DBM, how to measure the problem, as well as to understand its causes and consequences from a life-course perspective.

GCHB Food Security and Resilience 3 Students will examine the impacts of rapidly globalizing food systems on food and nutrition security at local, household, and intra-household levels in this course. This topic is especially relevant now because of the increased policy attention and resources for programming that are focused on promoting improved food security, nutrition and sustainability.

This course will provide students with the analytical skills for identifying the elements of resilient food systems and the outcomes of food and nutrition security, access to organizations prominent in international food security policy discussions, and a background in readings relative to this debate. Knowledge about how adults learn coupled with attitudes toward participatory learning methods will be presented in a way which will permit the students to exhibit behaviors which will enable them to in effect "train trainers" to multiply themselves and to multiply healthy practices in a community.

Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective (Understanding Public Health) Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective (Understanding Public Health)
Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective (Understanding Public Health) Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective (Understanding Public Health)
Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective (Understanding Public Health) Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective (Understanding Public Health)
Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective (Understanding Public Health) Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective (Understanding Public Health)
Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective (Understanding Public Health) Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective (Understanding Public Health)
Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective (Understanding Public Health) Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective (Understanding Public Health)
Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective (Understanding Public Health) Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective (Understanding Public Health)
Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective (Understanding Public Health) Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective (Understanding Public Health)
Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective (Understanding Public Health)

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